Brief overview of the current state of logic and the philosophy of science
A lot of people don't know what philosophy is, what philosophers actually do, or what the discipline amounts to - I know I didn't when I first got into philosophy
It can be confusing, so I'll give a brief, narrow, thorough but not comprehensive overview of one specific area of philosophical research that I'm particularly interested in below
What is Philosophy?
It means, the The Love of Wisdom
My opinion, the meta-discipline - discipline of all disciplines, the (most) inter-disciplinary discipline
"What is philosophy?" is an active area of philosophy research called Meta-Philosophy
While, traditional areas of research (epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, existential questions, etc.) are still studied extensively, philosophy as an academic discipline has expanded with several niche sub-disciplines: philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of physics, philosophy of biology, etc.
Ironically, this expansion is really a re-expansion since most of those disciplines were started or founded by philosophers decades, centuries, or millennia ago!
Today, most of these specialized philosophy sub-disciplines (philosophy of math, philosophy of science, etc.) require direct, rigorous, training in the area of study to which they are connected (and in the few cases where they do not already, will).
You might think of the philosophers who participate within those specialized sub-disciplines as kinds of philosopher liaisons which, to some extent would be correct, but it's more fruitful to think of them as dual-degree (often, two or more Ph.D.'s) polymaths or cross-discipline academic specialists who have earned a position at the table in two disciplines through papers, conferences, or other work.
How Do Philosophers Perform?
Philosophy undergraduates have acquired a pretty strong reputation as some of the top performing candidate graduate students (GRE, LSAT, MCAT, etc.).
ETS Scores (see page 3)
American Philosophy Association
Philosophers in Software are fairly common at least as entrepreneurs - my opinion, philosophers can also make strong engineers or developers given strong technical ability, interest, and a background in logic, hard science, math and the philosophy of language
Where are these philosophers?
The Social Sciences
LPS Department - London School of Economics
LPS Department - UC Irvine
Logic and Philosophy of Science at UC Berkeley
Math, Computer Science, and Logic
University of Connecticut Logic Group
Center for the Study of Language and Information - Stanford
Joint Degree at Carnegie Mellon
Munich Mathematical Philosophy
Foundations of Physics
FQXI's member list which contains almost every Nobel physicist, a bunch of philosophers, and most highly productive research physicists
Evaluating Threats to Human Existence and National Security
Oxford's Future of Humanity Institute
The NSA and Department of Homeland Security are two of the largest employers of mathematicians in the world - so, a lot of mathematically-inclined philosophers may or may not work with them
Graduate Level Rankings
In general, graduate and professional level rankings are very different than undergraduate rankings
There are no officially recognized philosophy rankings as of 2015 - there is an ongoing effort to standardize and improve the process
Also, many former "Philosophy" departments have now split into several different departments with different names (per Rorty): History and the Philosophy of Science, Logic and the Philosophy of Science, etc.
Nevertheless, there are several quality ranking systems that may be helpful: QS Undergraduate Rankings and the now defunct Philosophical Gourmet
Other Cool Resources
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy